The Hallux Valgus deformity, commonly known as Bunion, is an abnormality concerning the forefoot. Visually recognizable, the first metatarsal bone on the inside of the foot is arched inwardly and significantly moved out of place, so the big toe tilts over to the foot’s outer side.


The most common cause is most likely a genetic predisposition. In that case, there is a high possibility of other family members suffering from a Bunion too, often combined with any other foot malposition. During childhood and youth it usually isn’t developed yet, but later shapes up with the feets’ continuing growth. A Bunion also doesn’t have to appear identical on both feet. As individual and different as people are amongst each other, as individual is each Bunion.


Joint diseases, such as rheumatism or arthrosis, could either facilitate the development of a Bunion in advance or appear as accompanying symptoms later on. Along with genetic determination and diseases, there are also external potential causes, for example wearing overly tight and/or high shoes frequently or a sudden intense force onto the foot (like twisting or bumping). Certain kinds of shoes, especially those which taper at the front end or have a high heel, place an intense physical stress upon the front foot. Therefore women are predominantly affected by this osteal deformity (about 90%). The mentioned shoe-related restrictions increase the risk of developing an unnatural gait pattern, burdening those who enjoy wearing fashionable footwear.


The curvature on the foot’s inner side is not, as often presumed, an outgrowth of bones or a simple skin swelling, but the displaced metatarsal bone itself. A surgical bone correction is proven to be the best method of treatment. Although mostly women suffer from this deformity, there are some cases of men being affected. Usually it is a so called Rigid Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus).